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INTKODVCTOBY  ESSAY.                               113

time a nearly complete identity of vegetation. Many North
African or Arabian forms, such as Peganum Harmala, Fayowa
Cretica, Balanites ^Egyptiaca, Acacia Arabica, Alhayi, Gran-
ffea, CalotropiSy Salvadora Persica, extend throughout all the
drier parts of India. Others have a less extensive range,
being only found in Northern and Western India : of these,
Malcolmia Africana3 Farsetia, several species of Cleome, Bal-
samodendron, Astragalus hamatus and others, Cucumis Colo-
Cynthia, Berthelotia, Antickaris Arabica, spinous AcanthaceG,
Cometes, Forskalea, Populus Euphratica> Ephedra, Salix dG-
gyptiaca, Crypsis, etc. etc., may be mentioned as instances.
In India, as in Africa, this peculiar vegetation passes by insen-
sible gradations into the European Flora on the one hand,
and into the tropical on the other.

7. The Tropical African type.  Though tropical Asia and
Africa are separated by a vast expanse of ocean, there is a
striking similarity in their vegetation. This is shown not
only by the identity of the annual vegetation which springs
up during the rainy "season*, but by a great similarity in the
families and genera of the frees and shrubs : Capparis, Grewia,
Sterculiacea, Tiliacea, columnar Euphorbia, and many other
Euphorbiacea, Antidesma, Lepidostachys, Qlatine&9 'Acacia,
and Rubiacea, may be mentioned as examples.

Too little is known of the African Flora to enable any de-
finite conclusions to be drawn as to the numerical value of
this type in India, but it is evidently an important onet.

A curious affinity may also be traced between the mountain
vegetation of western tropical Africa and that of the Penin-
sular chain., where the absence or comparative rarity of many
of the principal features of the Malayan Flora has already

* Polani&ia, Gyn<mdropsist Uirenat 8id&9 fflelocMa, Biedteya, Corc7torus9
Triumfetta, JZscfynomene, Smithia, Indigofera, Doliehos, Ammannia, Cucwbi-
tace&> JBfamea, Vemonia cinerea, JSxacwm, Scrophulariaeea, Leueat, Ocymwn
J&dycMwn, Amomum, Qloriosa, CommetynaceoB, Brasses, and Cyperacea.
t The MelicmtTws Emalaycmus, described by Planchon, ia a garden plant,
introduced from the Cape of G-ood Hope into the Himalaya, and ia not dis-
tinct from the common Cape species.